Improving Intelligence: An Interview With R. James Woolsey
On 10 December 2004, International Affairs Review’s Editor-in-Chief Katherine Tobin met with R. James Woolsey, former Director of Central Intelligence (1993-1995) and current vice president of Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. They discussed recent changes to the U.S. intelligence community and emerging security threats facing an increasingly networked world.
The Belarusian Challenge: Context for a Democratic Strategy in Europe's Last Dictatorship
Political parties, civil organizations and public institutions are in a state of crisis in Belarus. President Alexander Lukashenka's grip on power has destroyed the basis of democratic institutions by diminishing the influence of political and social actors and by controlling all state institutions and public resources. In addition to grave human rights abuses, Belarus's ties with terrorist-harboring states make it one of the most serious threats to peace and stability in Europe. Flawed parliamentary elections in 2004 impeded opposition forces dedicated to democracy from gaining seats in the national assembly, and now there is an urgent need for action by the international community. This paper explores both the internal and external factors that account for Lukashenka's resilience, and provides a new policy framework aimed at promoting democratic change in the Slavic country.
Grand Strategy in The Trans-Caucasus: The U.S.-Russia-Georgia Triangle
One of the greatest geopolitical challenges – as well as opportunities – presented to U.S. policy makers in the last .fteen years has been the prospect of expanding U.S. in.uence, ideals and interests in the post-Soviet sphere. Nowhere has this become more evident than in the case of Georgia, a country that lies at the geostrategic heartland between the East and West. Energy concerns, promotion of democracy, the war against terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the larger strategic context of U.S.-Russian relations are all factors shaping U.S. policy toward Georgia. The challenge will be to formulate a coherent policy framework that best supports U.S. economic, political and security interests in Georgia, all while appreciating Russia’s role and interests in the region.
The Transatlantic Dispute Over Genetically Modified Organisms
The debate surrounding the use of biotechnology in agriculture has been an increasing source of tension in transatlantic relations since the mid- 1990s. The production, use and sale of genetically modi.ed organisms (GMOs) have presented many new challenges for the European Union and the United States. Public concern regarding GMOs focuses on human health, environmental protection and the ethical use of technology. Debates on topics ranging from intellectual property rights to food aid now include a discussion of GMOs and their related implications. Recently, this dispute has culminated in a World Trade Organization (WTO) case brought by the United States against an alleged EU moratorium on biotech food and crops. However, the dispute over GMOs extends beyond the realm of a traditional trade dispute to involve political and cultural differences. The complex and diverse issues addressed in this dispute may be outside of the mission of the WTO; therefore, potential alternatives to resolution by the WTO will be considered.
Between Arrogation and Abdication: A Framework for Determining Complementarity Under The Rome Statute
The Rome Statute establishing the International Criminal Court contains an internal tension: the principle of complementarity. This principle requires the court to admit a case only if the state that has jurisdiction over the crimes involved is unable or unwilling to conduct a genuine investigation or prosecution. Because states increasingly employ non-judicial or quasi-prosecutorial alternatives to criminal prosecution when investigating crimes committed by their nationals, whether the state has conducted a genuine investigation or prosecution is an important question for the Court. How it responds to challenges posed by answering this question will have serious implications for the ICC. The Court must adopt a complementarity test that neither arrogates to itself cases best addressed at the national level, nor abdicates its duty. This article offers such a test, using .ve criteria derived from a test originally proposed to resolve whether a truth and reconciliation commission satis.es a state’s international legal obligations with respect to its nationals’ international humanitarian law violations. It then applies these criteria to three historical test cases to suggest when complementarity should apply. This article concludes that non-prosecutorial alternatives should satisfy complementarity.
Transitional Justice in Iraq: The Iraqi Special Tribunal and the Future of a Nation
Adam M. Smith
Since the fall of his government, there has been little question that a judicial process would decide the .nal disposition of Saddam Hussein and other regime leaders. Many see such a legal process as a key step in the transition to a more open and stable Iraq. However, the lack of debate on this issue is troubling, and the establishment of the Iraqi Special Tribunal re.ects an unjusti.ed reverence for the criminal justice handed down by ad hoc tribunals established following World War II and, more recently, following violence in Rwanda and the Balkans. A review of these post-war courts reveals that they have often failed to impart meaningful justice to defendants or to provide any of their promised wider social bene.ts. This paper argues that Iraq may be better served by drawing inspiration from non-judicial means of addressing past abuses—such as those employed to deal with past regimes in South Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America—which may prove more amenable to helping Iraq con.dently emerge from its past and face its future.
Turkey's Role in the Middle East
Joshua W. Walker
The Republic of Turkey’s emergence as a geopolitical and strategic actor in world affairs is not a novel development. Historically, however, attention imparted to Turkey has focused more on its Western orientation and European af.liations than its Middle Eastern connections. This article will attempt to address this imbalance by focusing on Turkey’s growing importance to the Middle East. It will begin with a brief history of Turkey’s relations with its Middle Eastern neighbors, particularly in light of its former dominance as the Ottoman Empire. Second, the article will examine Turkey’s contemporary relations with its neighbors, with special attention paid to the effects of Turkey’s relationship with Israel on its other Muslim neighbors. Third, this article will discuss the impact of recent developments, such as the U.S.-proposed Greater Middle East Initiative, and thus Turkey’s potentially larger regional role. Lastly, this article will argue that recent developments in the Middle East require a rede.nition of Turkish foreign policy and that Turkey’s former tendency to ignore its Middle Eastern neighbors in favor of Western allies is no longer a viable strategy. In conclusion, this article will offer several policy suggestions for how Turkey can implement and coordinate its new role in the Middle East.