Hard Target: Forcing Myanmar to Change

By Paul Fraioli

This article discusses the direct and indirect strategies that the United States, the European Union, the United Nations, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations have used to influence the behavior of Myanmar. The article argues that sanctions used by the West against Myanmar have had mixed effectiveness as viewed through the sanctions framework developed by Hufbauer et al. It also argues that the ability of the West, and particularly the United States, to influence Myanmar more broadly has been limited due to differing interests among international actors.

About the author:
Paul Fraioli is a graduate student studying international security policy at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). His research interests include the development of political and legal institutions in Southeast Asia and the history of US foreign policy. He received his bachelor’s degree from Amherst College, where he studied English and classics and won the Hunter and Corbin Prizes for writing. In the summer of 2011 he was a Harold Rosenthal Fellow in International Relations and was posted at the Committee on Homeland Security in the US House of Representatives. At Columbia he is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of International Affairs.

Image courtesy of Susan Black.

Download PDF: 

About Us

The International Affairs Review is a graduate student-run publication of the George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs in Washington, D.C.

Follow us on:

Submission Guidelines

The International Affairs Review is currently accepting article submissions. Submissions for the website are accepted on a weekly basis with a deadline of 5 p.m. Eastern Standard Time each Thursday. Submissions for the print journal are accepted continuously, with article selection occurring at the beginning of each semester.

Click here for more information


Opinions expressed in International Affairs Review are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of International Affairs Review, The Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University, or any other person or organization formally associated with International Affairs Review.

Click here for more information

Contact Us

Please feel free to contact our team with any questions or concerns.

Website: iarweb@gwu.edu
Print Journal: iar@gwu.edu

The Elliott School of International Affairs
George Washington University
1957 E Street, NW
Room 303-K
Washington, DC 20052