Hard Target: Forcing Myanmar to Change

By Paul Fraioli

This article discusses the direct and indirect strategies that the United States, the European Union, the United Nations, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations have used to influence the behavior of Myanmar. The article argues that sanctions used by the West against Myanmar have had mixed effectiveness as viewed through the sanctions framework developed by Hufbauer et al. It also argues that the ability of the West, and particularly the United States, to influence Myanmar more broadly has been limited due to differing interests among international actors.

About the author:
Paul Fraioli is a graduate student studying international security policy at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). His research interests include the development of political and legal institutions in Southeast Asia and the history of US foreign policy. He received his bachelor’s degree from Amherst College, where he studied English and classics and won the Hunter and Corbin Prizes for writing. In the summer of 2011 he was a Harold Rosenthal Fellow in International Relations and was posted at the Committee on Homeland Security in the US House of Representatives. At Columbia he is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of International Affairs.

Image courtesy of Susan Black.

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